Electromagnetic transmission and detection at deep depths
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Electromagnetic transmission and detection at deep depths

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      nvestigation into the expressions of the field produced by a loop over a conducting half space or in an infinite conducting half space are well documented. Reasonably complex descriptions of the effects of stratification also are reported. However, a model which must contain all of these complexities because of transmission to depths of 15,000 feet and also include the pertibation of the field by a verticle cylindrical steel casing loses its facility in the field or for quick, accurate approximation to field magnitudes and phase. This paper describes the results of two field tests to determine the attenuation and phase versus depth and frequency of an electromagnetic wave (induction field). A simple two-layer model is postulated to predict the magnitude and phase of the induced field which does not require sophisticated computing tools. Correlation of the model with experimental results show agreement of most amplitude measurements to within 3 db and most phase measurements to within five degrees. The tests were conducted in a 7400 foot deep well in Nevada and an 11,000 foot deep well in Wyoming which had conductivities ranging from .0025 mhos/m to .25 mhos/m. The surface transmitting dipole had an area of ~ 10 6 feet squared and constant frequency signals of 1.5 Hz to 20 Hz were transmitted through the earth utilizing less than 65 watts of power. Model Description The magnetic field intensity components generated by a magnetic dipole immersed in an infinite homogeneous medium can be expressed in spherical coordinates as: [ ] where N, I, and (? a ) are the transmitting antenna turns, current, and effective area, respectively, and r is the range from the loops circumference to the measurement point.
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