Subsurface applications of periodic electromagnetic video pulse signals 
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Subsurface applications of periodic electromagnetic video pulse signals 

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    Considerable current interest is evident[l,2] in the use of transient electromagnetic methods for subsurface remote sensing. A transient method is discussed which uses a periodic video-type pulse containing a wide frequency range. A video pulse is used as an interrogating signal both for "target" identification and detection for relatively short depth (c 20 meters) applications in soil and soft rock media. If the medium is favorable, e.g., hard rock, greater depth applications appear to be feasible. The same procedures would be applicable for deep geological exploration but would require a substantial reduction in frequency and increase in target size. It should be noted that video pulse generators with 35 kv peak voltage and nanoseconds base widths are now within the state-of-the-art, thus significant power over broad spectral ranges is possible. In the design of a video pulse sounding system, 5 main problem areas can be identified; 1 ) selection of the pulse shape or spectral content of the video pulse, 2) design of a radiating structure which effectively couples such a pulse into the medium, 3) isolation of the radiating and receiving mechanisms, 4) realistically accounting for the dispersion and attentuation of the medium and the air-medium interface, and 5) interpretation or processing of the received signal waveform. Each of these problem areas will be discussed and illustrated with experimental and/or theoretical results. The Video Pulse Selection of the proper video pulse signal is dictated by 3 considerations, the maximum desired depth of penetration, the attenuation of the medium and the required resolution and size of the target. For a lossy medium, penetration and resolution are clearly at cross purposes and a compromise is necessary. The exact nature of the compromise is dictated by the application, but the spectrum of the video pulse should not contain any frequencies higher than the predicted cut-off, i.e., that frequency which is attenuated to the threshold level of the receiver. As a practical matter, it may be necessary to select 1 or 2 video pulses reasonably suited
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