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Electromagnetic investigation of abandoned mines in the Galena, KS, area
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    "As part of an investigation aimed at mitigating the hazards caused by abandoned mine openings, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a series of electromagnetic surveys in the Galena, Kansas, area of the Tri- State Mining District. The application of monostatic ground- penetrating radar (GPR) and inductive electromagnetic methods for detecting and delineating hazardous mine openings and attendant features was demonstrated to be feasible for shallow mine workings (i.e., less than 35 ft) occurring below flat-lying areas. Accurate determinations of depth to a mine roof appeared to be limited to roughly 20 ft using the GPR method. Features such as mine voids, fractures, and zones of subsidence were located beneath the mainstreet (state highway 26) site using the GPR system. Both the GPR and inductive electromagnetic techniques satisfactorily located mine openings and pillars at the hell's half acre site. Geophysical interpretations were supported by exploratory drilling and mine maps." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSH no. 10007652
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