The Association of Urine Arsenic with Prevalent and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: Evidence from the Strong Heart Study
Published Date:Jul 2015
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Indians, North American
Proportional Hazards Models
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4844343
Funding:5T32HL007024/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
HL090863/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
HL41642/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
HL41652/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
HL41654/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
HL65521/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
P30ES03819/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
R01 ES021367/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
R01ES021367/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
T32 ES007141/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
T32 ES103650/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
T42OH008428/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
UL1 TR001079/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
Few studies have evaluated associations between low to moderate arsenic levels and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective was to evaluate the associations of inorganic arsenic exposure with prevalent and incident CKD in American Indian adults.
We evaluated the associations of inorganic arsenic exposure with CKD in American Indians who participated in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) in 3,851 adults aged 45–74 years in a cross-sectional analysis, and 3,119 adults with follow-up data in a prospective analysis. Inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate were measured in urine at baseline. CKD was defined as eGFR≤60 mL/min/1.73m2, kidney transplant or dialysis.
CKD prevalence was 10.3%. The median (IQR) concentration of inorganic plus methylated arsenic species (total arsenic) in urine was 9.7 (5.8, 15.7) μg/L. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of prevalent CKD for an interquartile range in total arsenic was 0.7 (0.6, 0.8), mostly due to an inverse association with inorganic arsenic (OR 0.4 (0.3, 0.4)). Monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate were positively associated with prevalent CKD after adjustment for inorganic arsenic (OR 3.8 and 1.8). The adjusted HR of incident CKD for an IQR in ΣAs was 1.2 (1.03, 1.41). The corresponding HR for inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate were 1.0 (0.9, 1.2), 1.2 (1.00, 1.3) and 1.2 (1.0, 1.4).
The inverse association of urine inorganic arsenic with prevalent CKD suggests that kidney disease affects excretion of inorganic arsenic. Arsenic species were positively associated with incident CKD. Studies with repeated measures are needed to further characterize the relationship between arsenic and kidney disease development.
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