Air Pollution, Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Factors and Neural Tube Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California
Published Date:Nov 2015
Source:Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 29(6):536-545.
Neural Tube Defects
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4646169
Funding:K99 ES021470/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
U50/CCU913241/PHS HHS/United States
U01 DD001033/DD/NCBDD CDC HHS/United States
L40 ES023163/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
P01 ES022849/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
P20 ES018173/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood.
We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children’s Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997–2006. Five pollutant exposures, three outcomes and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors were included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education and multivitamin use.
We present below odds ratios that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity p-value of <0.05. We observed increased odds of spina bifida comparing the highest to lowest quartile of particulate matter <10 micrometres (PM10) among those living in a neighbourhood with: a) median household income of less than $30,000 per year (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7, 15.3); b) more than 20% living below the federal poverty level (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1, 6.0); and c) more than 30% with less than or equal to a high school education (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4, 7.4). The ORs were not statistically significant among those higher SES neighbourhoods.
Our results demonstrate effect modification by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the association of particulate matter and neural tube defects in California.
You May Also Like: