Monitoring the durability of the long-lasting insecticidal nets MAGNet and Royal Sentry in three ecological zones of Mozambique
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Monitoring the durability of the long-lasting insecticidal nets MAGNet and Royal Sentry in three ecological zones of Mozambique

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  • Alternative Title:
    Malar J
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    Malaria prevention with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has seen a tremendous scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade. To sustain this success, it is important to understand how long LLINs remain in the households and continue to protect net users, which is termed durability. This information is needed to decide the appropriate timing of LLIN distribution and also to identify product(s) that may be underperforming relative to expectations. Following guidance from the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative, durability monitoring of polyethylene 150-denier LLIN (Royal Sentry® and MAGNet®) distributed during a 2017 mass campaign in Mozambique was implemented in three ecologically different sites: Inhambane, Tete, and Nampula.


    This was a prospective cohort study in which representative samples of households from each district were recruited at baseline, 1 to 6 months after the mass campaign. All campaign LLINs in these households were labelled and followed up over a period of 36 months. The primary outcome was the “proportion of LLINs surviving in serviceable condition” based on attrition and integrity measures and the median survival in years. The outcome for insecticidal durability was determined by bio-assay from subsamples of campaign LLINs.


    A total of 998 households (98% of target) and 1998 campaign LLIN (85% of target) were included in the study. Definite outcomes could be determined for 80% of the cohort LLIN in Inhambane, 45% in Tete, and 72% in Nampula. The highest all-cause attrition was seen in Nampula with 74% followed by Inhambane at 56% and Tete at 50%. Overall, only 2% of campaign LLINs were used for other purposes. Estimated survival in serviceable condition of campaign LLINs after 36 months was 57% in Inhambane, 43% in Tete, and 33% in Nampula, corresponding to median survival of 3.0, 2.8, and 2.4 years, respectively. Factors that were associated with better survival were exposure to social and behavioural change communication, a positive net care attitude, and folding up the net during the day. Larger household size negatively impacted survival. Insecticidal performance was optimal up to 24 months follow-up, but declined at 36 months when only 3% of samples showed optimal effectiveness in Inhambane, 11% in Tete and 29% in Nampula. However, 96% of LLIN still had minimal effectiveness at 36 months.


    Differences in median survival could be attributed at least in part to household environment and net care and repair behaviours. This means that in two of the three sites the assumption of a three-year cycle of campaign distributions holds, while in the Nampula site either continuous distribution channels could be expanded or more intense or targeted social and behaviour change activities to encourage net care and retention could be considered.

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