Impact of Maternal HIV Infection and Placental Malaria on the Transplacental Transfer of Influenza Antibodies in Mother–Infant Pairs in Malawi, 2013–2014
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Impact of Maternal HIV Infection and Placental Malaria on the Transplacental Transfer of Influenza Antibodies in Mother–Infant Pairs in Malawi, 2013–2014

  • Published Date:

    August 28 2019

  • Source:
    Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019; 6(10)
  • Language:
    English
Filetype[PDF-482.98 KB]


Details:
  • Alternative Title:
    Open Forum Infect Dis
  • Description:
    Background Maternal influenza vaccination protects infants against influenza virus infection. Impaired transplacental transfer of influenza antibodies may reduce this protection. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine–naïve pregnant women recruited at delivery from Blantyre (urban, low malaria transmission) and Chikwawa (rural, high malaria transmission) in Southern Malawi. HIV-infected mothers were excluded in Chikwawa. Maternal and cord blood antibodies against circulating influenza strains A/California/7/2009, A/Victoria/361/2011, B/Brisbane/60/2008, and B/Wisconsin/1/2010 were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). We studied the impact of maternal HIV infection and placental malaria on influenza antibody levels in mother–infant pairs in Blantyre and Chikwawa, respectively. Results We included 454 mother–infant pairs (Blantyre, n = 253; Chikwawa, n = 201). HIV-infected mothers and their infants had lower seropositivity (HAI titer ≥1:40) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (mothers, 24.3 vs 45.4%; P = .02; infants, 24.3 vs 50.5%; P = .003) and A(H3N2) (mothers, 37.8% vs 63.9%; P = .003; infants, 43.2 vs 64.8%; P = .01), whereas placental malaria had an inconsistent effect on maternal and infant seropositivity. In multivariable analyses, maternal HIV infection was associated with reduced infant seropositivity (A(H1N1)pdm09: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15–0.79; A(H3N2): aOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21–0.89). Transplacental transfer was not impaired by maternal HIV or placental malaria. Conclusions Maternal HIV infection influenced maternal antibody response to influenza A virus infection, and thereby antibody levels in newborns, but did not affect transplacental antibody transfer.
  • Pubmed ID:
    31660347
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC6785697
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