The urban American Indian oversample in the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey.
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The urban American Indian oversample in the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey.

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    Public Health Rep
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    Although more than two-thirds of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI) live outside reservations and Tribal lands, few data sets describe social and maternal-child health risk factors among urban AI. The Indian Health Service sponsored a special effort to survey mothers of AI infants as part of the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), a comprehensive national study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control. The authors analyzed questionnaires completed by mothers residing in selected locations served by urban Indian health programs and compared the data with those for women of other races residing in metropolitan areas. After adjusting the sample for non participating States, the response rate in the Urban Indian Over sample was 60.8 percent (763 of 1,254). More than 45 percent of AI and black respondents, compared with 15 percent of white respondents, reported an annual household income of less than $10,000. About half of AI and black women, compared with nearly three-quarters of white women, reported having insurance or health maintenance organization coverage during pregnancy. Despite having a similarly low rate of health insurance coverage and low household income, AI respondents were far less likely than black respondents to have Medicaid coverage. A higher proportion of AI women than of black or white women reported difficulties in obtaining prenatal care, and AI women were less likely to obtain prenatal care. AI women were also less likely than white women to obtain prenatal care in the first trimester. Although a similar proportion of Al and white women reported that they consumed alcohol during the year before pregnancy, a higher proportion of Al drinkers than of white drinkers reported consuming one or more drinks weekly after finding out they were pregnant. The proportion of unwanted pregnancies was higher among Al women than among white women, but lower than among black women. Al and black women had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than did white women.The data suggest that urban Al mothers experience a disproportionate burden of economic, social, and behavioral risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome.In spite of some data limitations, the Urban Indian Over sample of the NMIHS provides important information about social and health risk factors among urban Al mothers.
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