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Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus Among Sexually Experienced Males and Females Aged 14–59 Years, United States, 2013–2014
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  • Alternative Title:
    J Infect Dis
  • Description:

    Differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among males and females have been reported. Using the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we evaluated sex differences in prevalence overall and by demographic and sexual behavior characteristics.


    Self-collected penile and cervicovaginal swabs from participants aged 14–59 were tested for HPV DNA. Prevalences of any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) were estimated for sexually experienced males and females. Overall and in models stratified by demographic characteristics and behaviors, prevalence was compared in males and females using prevalence ratios (PR).


    Overall, males had higher prevalence than females of any HPV (PR, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.27) and HR-HPV (PR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07–1.43). Prevalences were lower among males than females at ages 14–19 and higher at ages 40–49 and 50–59. Sex differences in models stratified by race/ethnicity, poverty, sexual behaviors, and smoking were observed. After adjusting for lifetime sex partners, most sex differences were attenuated, but males had lower prevalences at ages 14–19 and 20–24 and higher HR-HPV prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks.


    Any HPV and HR-HPV prevalences were significantly higher in males; sex differences varied by age group and race/ethnicity. Lifetime partners explained many of the differences by sex.

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