Advanced Disease at Enrollment in HIV Care in Four Sub-Saharan African Countries: Change from 2006-2011 and Multi-Level Predictors in 2011
Published Date:Oct 23 2014
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4361092
Funding:P30 MH043520/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R01 MH083561/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
R01 MH089831/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
U2G PS001537/PS/NCHHSTP CDC HHS/United States
To examine changes between 2006 and 2011 in the proportion of HIV-positive patients newly-enrolled in HIV care with advanced disease and the median CD4+ cell count at enrollment; and identify patient-, facility-, and contextual-level factors associated with late enrollment in care in 2011.
Cross sectional over time.
For time trends analyses, routinely-collected patient-level data (307,110 adults newly-enrolled in 138 HIV clinical care facilities) in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania; and for analyses of correlates, patient-level data (46,201 in 195 facilities), and facility- and population-level survey data were used. Late enrollment was defined as CD4+ count ≤350 cells/μl and/or WHO clinical stage 3/4.
Late enrollment declined from 69.9% to 57.2%, (p<0.0001); median CD4+ count increased from 242 to 292 cells/μL (ptrend<0.0001). In 2011, risk of late enrollment was significantly higher for men and non-pregnant women vs. pregnant women; patients aged >25 vs. 15-25 years; non-married vs. married; and those entering from sites other than prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). More extensive HIV testing coverage in the region of a facility was significantly associated with lower risk of late enrollment.
Despite improvement, in 2011, 57% of patients entered HIV care already ART-eligible. The lower risk of late enrollment among those referred from PMTCT and in regions where HIV testing coverage was higher suggests that innovative approaches to rapidly increase testing uptake among people living with HIV prior to the development of symptoms have the potential to reduce late enrollment in care.
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