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Associations of hormonal contraceptive use with measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy effectiveness☆
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    26197261
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4688178
  • Funding:
    CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Objective

    To examine the associations between hormonal contraceptive use and measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness.

    Study design

    A prospective cohort study of women with prevalent HIV infection in St. Petersburg, Russia, was conducted. After contraceptive counseling, participants chose to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a copper intrauterine device (IUD) or male condoms for pregnancy prevention. Among participants not using ART at enrollment, we used multivariate Cox regression to assess the association between current (time-varying) contraceptive use and disease progression, measured by the primary composite outcome of CD4 decline to <350 cells/mm3, ART initiation or death. Among participants using ART at enrollment, we used linear mixed models to estimate the predicted mean CD4 change at select time points by contraceptive method.

    Results

    During a total of 5233 months follow-up among participants not using ART with enrollment CD4 ≥ 350 cells/mm3 (n=315), 97 experienced disease progression. Neither current use of COCs [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56–1.48] nor DMPA (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 0.71–2.31) was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for disease progression compared with use of nonhormonal methods (IUD or condoms). Among participants using ART at enrollment (n=77), we found no statistically significant differences in the predicted mean changes in CD4 cell count comparing current use of COCs (p=.1) or DMPA (p=.3) with nonhormonal methods.

    Conclusion

    Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection.

    Implications

    Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection.