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Maternal Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Craniosynostosis among Offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study
Filetype[PDF - 130.19 KB]


Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    26033890
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4668225
  • Funding:
    200-2000-08018/PHS HHS/United States
    CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
    DYT1/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
    L40 DE023736/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
    P30 ES005605/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    P30 ES023512/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    R03 DE021739/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
    R03DE021739/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
    U01DD000494/DD/NCBDD CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Background

    Evidence in animal models and humans suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may lead to birth defects. To our knowledge, this relationship has not been evaluated for craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by the premature closure of sutures in the skull. We conducted a case-control study to examine associations between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis.

    Methods

    We used data from craniosynostosis cases and control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated delivery dates from 1997–2002. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational data from the computer-assisted telephone interview and assigned a yes/no rating of probable occupational PAH exposure for each job from one month before conception through delivery. We used logistic regression to assess the association between occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis.

    Results

    The prevalence of exposure was 5.3% in case mothers (16/300) and 3.7% in control mothers (107/2,886). We observed a positive association between exposure to PAHs during the one month before conception through the third month of pregnancy and craniosynostosis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 3.05] after adjusting for maternal age and maternal education. The number of cases for each craniosynostosis subtype limited subtype analyses to sagittal craniosynostosis; the odds ratio remained similar (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.82–3.75), but was not significant.

    Conclusions

    Our findings support a moderate association between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. Additional work is needed to better characterize susceptibility and the role PAHs may play on specific craniosynostosis subtypes.