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Isoform-specific regulation of cytochrome P450 expression and activity by estradiol in female rats
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    Estradiol (E2) is the major endogenous estrogen, and its plasma concentration increases up to 100-fold during pregnancy in humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that an elevated level of E2 may influence hepatic drug metabolism, potentially being responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. We characterized effects of E2 on expression and activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in an in vivo system using rats. To this end, female rats were treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) or known CYP inducers. Liver tissues were obtained after 5 days of treatment, and mRNA and protein expression levels as well as activities of major hepatic CYPs were determined by qRT-PCR, immunoblot, and microsomal assay. E2 increased CYP1A2 expression and activity to a smaller extent than β-naphthoflavone did. E2 also enhanced CYP2C expression (CYP2C6, CYP2C7, and CYP2C12) to levels comparable to those observed by phenobarbital. E2 upregulated CYP3A9 expression, while expression of CYP3A1 was downregulated. Expression of hepatic nuclear receptors (PXR and CAR) and the obligate redox partner of CYPs (POR) was downregulated in EB-treated rats, suggesting their potential involvement in regulation of CYP expression and activity by E2. In summary, in female rats E2 regulates expression of hepatic CYPs in a CYP isoform-specific manner although the directional changes are different from those clinically observed during human pregnancy. Further study is warranted to determine whether the changes in drug metabolism during human pregnancy are attributable to involvement of hormones other than E2.

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    HD055313/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
    K12 HD055892/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
    K12 HD055892-04/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
    K12HK055892/HK/PHITPO CDC HHS/United States
    R21 HD055313/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
    R21 HD055313-01A2/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
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