Influenza surveillance report no. 93, August 1977-March 1979
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Influenza surveillance report no. 93, August 1977-March 1979

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Influenza surveillance report no. 93, August 1977-March  1979
  • Alternative Title:
    Guidelines for control of nosocomial influenza ; Recommendation of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: Influenza vaccine ;
  • Description:
    "A. 1977-1978 August1977-April 1978) The 1977-1978 influenza season was unusual because of the reappearance of influenza A (H1N1) virus [reference strain USSR/90/77 (H1N1)] and the cocirculation of this virus subtype with influenza A (H3N2). This is the first recorded instance of failure of a pandemic strain to rapidly supplant and replace antecedent strains. 1. Influenza A (H3N2) Virus Activity (August 1977-March 1978). During August, an outbreak in the l1arsha11 Islands occurred from which an A/Texas-like strain was isolated. In the continental United States, the first influenza A (H1N2) isolate was reported from Oregon in October, and reports of outbreaks (caused by A/Texas-like or A/Victoria-like strains) began in late November and continued until ~1arch 1978. Deaths from pneumonia and influenza, as reported in 121 cities, were increased for the 9-week period between January 7 and March II, 1978. 2. Influenza A (HINI) Activity (January 1978-April 1978). In May 1977 in China, and in November 1977 in the USSR and Hong Kong, influenza A strains whose antigenic properties were markedly different from other strains elsewhere in the world were isolated and identified as being of HINI subtype. Similar viruses were first isolated in the United States on January 15, 1978, from a high school outbreak in Cheyenne, Wyoming. By April 1978,35 States had reported A/USSR-like isolates with, however, no apparent excess mortality attributable to this strain. The influenza A (H1NI) virus primarily affected individuals less than 25 years of age (ie., persons born after 1952) who because previous influenza A (H1N1) viruses ceased to circulate in 1956 / 1957 had not been previously infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus strains. Attack rates as high as 75 percent occurred in some young adult populations living in dormitory-style accomodations. 3. Influenza B Activity. Ho reports of influenza B outbreaks were received during the 1977-1978 season. One State, Texas, reported influenza B/Hong Kong-like isolates from sporadic cases. B. 1978-1979. 1. Influenza A Activity (November 1978-March 1979). The first isolates were influenza A (HINl) strains reported from areas bordering Mexico and the Gulf (Puerto Rico, Texas, and Southern California). Outbreaks of influenza A (HINl) occurred subsequently throughout the United States, particularly among schoolchildren. The majority of the influenza A (HINI) isolates exhibited a slight antigenic drift from the previous winter's influenza (HINl) reference strain, A/ USSR/90/77, and resembled virus detected in South America the previous winter, reference strain A/Brazil/11/7S. Persons less than 26 years old (i.e., born after 1952) were primarily affected in a pattern similar to that noted with A/USSR-like viruses in the early 1978 outbreaks. Despite the widespread reports of illness, there were no excess reported deaths due to pneumonia and influenza. There were no confirmed influenza A (H3N2) isolates in the United States. 2. Reye Syndrome. A temporal association occurred between the epidemic of influenza A (H1N1) infection and an increase in reported cases of Reye syndrome. 3. Influenza B. A limited number of influenza B outbreaks occurred in nursing home residents through the spring after influenza A (HINI) activity had subsided." p. [1] Appendix: ACIP recommendations, 1977, also has title: Recommendation of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: Influenza vaccine (June 1977; Published Morbidity and mortality weekly report: Vol. 26, No. 24. 1977). ; (from: Morbidity and mortality weekly report: v. 27, no. 32, p. 285-86, 261-92)
  • Content Notes:
    Issued January 1983. This report was prepared by: Centers for Disease Control , Center for Prevention Services , Immunization Division, Surveillance, Investigations and Research Branch, Surveillance and Investigations Section; Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Influenza Branch; Epidemiology Program Office, Consolidated Surveillance and Communications Activity. "Summarized in this report is information received from State Health Departments, university investigators, virology laboratories and other pertinent sources, domestic and foreign. Much of the information is preliminary. It is intended primarily for the use of those with responsibility for disease control activities. Anyone desiring to quote this report should contact the original investigator for confirmation and interpretation." - preface Includes bibliographical references (p. 34). Centers for Disease Control: Influenza Surveillance Report No. 93. Issued January 1983.
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