Trends of risk profile among middle-aged adults hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke in United States 2006–2017
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Trends of risk profile among middle-aged adults hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke in United States 2006–2017

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  • Alternative Title:
    Int J Stroke
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    Recent studies reported increasing trends in hospitalization of stroke patients aged 35–64 years.


    To examine changes in risk factor profiles among patients aged 35–64 years hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2017 in the United States.


    We used data from the National Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from 2006 through 2017. Principal ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM codes were used to identify acute ischemic stroke hospitalizations, and secondary codes were used to identify the presence of four major stroke risk factors: hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, and tobacco use. We used the relative percent change to assess the changes in the prevalence of risk profile between 2006–2007 and 2016–2017 and linear regression models to obtain the p values for the overall trends across six time periods.


    Approximately 1.5 million acute ischemic stroke hospitalizations occurred during 2006–2017. The prevalence of having all four risk factors increased from 4.1% in 2006–2007 to 9.1% in 2016–2017 (relative percent change 122.0%, p < 0.001 for trend), prevalence of any three risk factors increased from 24.5% to 33.8% (relative percent change 38.0%, p < 0.001). Prevalence of only two risk factors decreased from 36.1% to 32.7% (p < 0.001), only one risk factor decreased from 25.2% to 18.1% (p < 0.001), and absence of risk factors decreased from 10.1% to 6.2% (p < 0.001). The most prevalent triad of risk factors was hypertension, diabetes, and lipid disorders (14.3% in 2006–2007 and 19.8% in 2016–2017), and the most common dyad risk factors was hypertension and lipid disorders (12.6% in 2006–2007 and 11.9% in 2016–2017).


    The prevalence of hospitalized acute ischemic stroke patients aged 35–64 years with all four or any three of four major stroke risk factors increased by 122% and 38%, while those with only one risk factor or no risk factor has declined by 28% and 39%, respectively, from 2006 to 2017. Younger adults are increasingly at higher risk for stroke from preventable and treatable risk factors. This growing public health problem will require clinicians, healthcare systems, and public health efforts to implement more effective prevention strategies among this population.

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