Isoprene Exposure in the United States based on Urinary IPM3: NHANES 2015-2016
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Isoprene Exposure in the United States based on Urinary IPM3: NHANES 2015-2016

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  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      Environ Sci Technol
    • Description:
      Isoprene is the 2-methyl analog of 1,3-butadiene and is a possible human carcinogen (IARC Group 2B). We assessed isoprene exposure in the general US population by measuring its urinary metabolite, |-acetyl-|-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-l-cysteine (IPM3) in participants (≥3 year old) from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Spot urine samples were analyzed for IPM3 using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Exclusive tobacco smokers were distinguished from non-users using a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine data. IPM3 was detected in 80.2% of samples. The median IPM3 level was higher for exclusive cigarette smokers (39.8 μg/g creatinine) than for non-users (3.05 μg/g creatinine). Sample weighted regression analysis, controlling for creatinine, sex, age, race, body mass index, and diet, showed that IPM3 was positively and significantly associated with serum cotinine. Smoking 1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD, 0.5 pack) was significantly associated with an IPM3 increase of 596% (| < .0001), and smoking >20 CPD (>1 pack) was significantly associated with an IPM3 increase of 1640% (| < .0001), controlling for confounding variables. Drinking beer/ale at median and 90th percentile levels (compared to zero consumption) was associated (| < 0.05) with 0 and 2.9% increase in IPM3 in non-users, respectively. We conclude that tobacco smoke is a major source of isoprene exposure in the US population. This study provides important public health biomonitoring data on isoprene exposure in the general US population.
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