Evaluation of structures for roof-fall areas
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      "This U.S. Bureau of Mines report presents the results of structural analyses and full-scale physical tests conducted on a steel-set arch and tri-set. The purpose of the analyses and tests was to evaluate the suitability of these structures for use in roof-fall-prone areas. The arch canopy test and design procedures previously developed by the Bureau were utilized in this evaluation. Theoretical resistance functions were established for the steel-set arch and tri-set and were representative of the experimental behavior of the structures. The resistance functions were used to determine the energy absorption capacity of the structures and to predict their dynamic response to impact loading. The dynamic tests demonstrated that the arch canopy design procedure is appropriate for tri-sets and yields conservative designs for both steel-set arches and tri-sets. As a result of this work, it is recommended that these two structures may be considered for use in roof-fall-prone areas and for rehabilitation work, provided the arch canopy design procedure is utilized for each application and the principles underlying the design procedure are understood." - NIOSHTIC-2

      NIOSH no. 10011396

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