Whole Grain Intake and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2014
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Whole Grain Intake and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Adolescents, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2014

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  • English

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    • Alternative Title:
      Prev Chronic Dis
    • Description:

      Large prospective cohort studies show a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes among adults with higher whole grain consumption. Less is known about the relationship between whole grain consumption and precursors for diabetes risk in adolescents. We examined whether intake of whole grains was associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in adolescents.


      We analyzed data on dietary intake from an average of two 24-hour diet recalls from fasting, nondiabetic adolescents aged 12–18 years (N = 2,286) across 5 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2014). We used logistic regression to calculate the odds of having IFG (100–125 mg/dL) with respect to servings of whole and refined grains, as well as percentage of whole grains, adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, annual household income, obesity, total energy, and diet quality.


      IFG was present in 17% of participants. After adjusting for covariates, number of servings per day of whole grains was significantly associated with lower odds of IFG, but there was no relationship between IFG and servings of refined grains or percentage of whole grains. Consuming at least 1 ounce-equivalent serving (16 g) of whole grains daily, compared with consuming no whole grains, was associated with a 40% reduction in the adjusted odds of having IFG (adjusted odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38–0.93).


      Analysis of 10 years of national cross-sectional data suggests that US adolescents whose daily diets consist of a minimum threshold amount of whole grains may be less likely to have IFG, a finding that has implications for diabetes prevention in adolescents.

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