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The Effects of Water Emulsified Fuel on Diesel Particulate Matter Concentrations in Underground Mines
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    In this study, we evaluated the ambient diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations (at the intakes and exhausts of the mine) as the entire vehicle fleet of a stone mine switched from using 35% biodiesel to using a water emulsified fuel (PuriNOx). Elemental carbon (EC) was reduced by 45% when a PuriNOx blend containing 10% water replaced 35% biodiesel and by 57% when a PuriNOx blend containing 20% water was used. Other factors such as engine duty cycle and production changes could potentially cause some day-to-day EC fluctuations, and no direct comparison to commonly used dieselfuels (No. 1 or No. 2) was achieved. Therefore, a second study was performed in a controlled isolatedzone environment to fametal mine, comparing PuriNOxto No.1 diesel fuel in a load haul dump vehicle. The EC fraction of the DPM was reduced by about 71% when the PuriNOx blend containing 10% water was used and by about 85% when the PuriNOx blend containing 20% water was employed. This study did not determine how the water emulsified fuel would affect the engine or power.

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