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Evaluation of CDC’s Hemophilia Surveillance Program — Universal Data Collection (1998–2011) and Community Counts (2011–2019), United States
Filetype[PDF-403.37 KB]


Details:
  • Description:
    Problem/Condition: Hemophilia is an X-linked genetic disorder that primarily affects males and results in deficiencies in blood-clotting proteins. Hemophilia A is a deficiency in factor VIII, and hemophilia B is a deficiency in factor IX. Approximately one in 5,000 males are born with hemophilia, and hemophilia A is about four times as common as hemophilia B. Both disorders are characterized by spontaneous internal bleeding and excessive bleeding after injuries or surgery. Hemophilia can lead to repeated bleeding into the joints and associated chronic joint disease, neurologic damage, damage to other organ systems, and death. Although no precise national U.S. prevalence estimates for hemophilia exist because of the difficulty identifying cases among persons who receive care from various types of health care providers, two previous state-based studies estimated hemophilia prevalence at 13.4 and 19.4 per 100,000 males. In addition, these studies showed that 67% and 82% of persons with hemophilia received care in a federally funded hemophilia treatment center (HTC), and 86% and 94% of those with the most severe cases of hemophilia (i.e., those with the lowest levels of clotting factor activity in the circulating blood) received care in a federally funded HTC. As of January 2020, the United States had 144 HTCs.

    Period Covered: 1998–2019.

    Description of the System: Surveillance for hemophilia, which is a complex, chronic condition, is challenging because of its low prevalence, the difficulty in ascertaining cases uniformly, and the challenges in routinely characterizing and tracking associated health complications. Over time, two systems involving many stakeholders have been used to conduct ongoing hemophilia surveillance. During 1998–2011, CDC and the HTCs collaborated to establish the Universal Data Collection (UDC) surveillance system. The purposes of the UDC surveillance system were to monitor human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and bloodborne viral hepatitis in persons with hemophilia, thereby tracking blood safety, and to track the prevalence of and trends in complications associated with hemophilia. HTC staff collected clinical data and blood specimens from UDC participants and submitted them to CDC. CDC tested specimens for viral hepatitis and HIV. In 2011, the UDC surveillance system was replaced by a new hemophilia surveillance system called Community Counts. CDC and the HTCs established Community Counts to expand laboratory testing and the collection of clinical data to better identify and track emerging health issues in persons with hemophilia.

    Results: This report is the first comprehensive summary of CDC’s hemophilia surveillance program, which comprises both UDC and Community Counts. Data generated from these surveillance systems have been used in the development of public health and clinical guidelines and practices to improve the safety of U.S. blood products and either prevent hemophilia-related complications or identify complications early. Several factors have played a role in the effectiveness of the UDC and Community Counts systems, including 1) a stable data collection design that was developed and is continually reviewed in close partnership with HTC regional leaders and providers to ensure surveillance activities are focused on maximizing the scientific and clinical impact; 2) flexibility to respond to emerging health priorities through periodic updates to data collection elements and special studies; 3) high data quality for many clinical indicators and state-of-the-art laboratory testing methods for hemophilia treatment product inhibitors (developed and refined in part based on CDC research); 4) timely data and specimen collection and submission, laboratory specimen testing, analysis, and reporting; and 5) the largest and most representative sample of persons with hemophilia in the United States and one of the largest and most comprehensive data collection systems on hemophilia worldwide.

    Interpretation: CDC has successfully developed, implemented, and maintained a surveillance system for hemophilia. The program can serve as an example of how to conduct surveillance for a complex chronic disease by involving stakeholders, improving and building new infrastructure, expanding data collection (e.g., new diagnostic assays), providing testing guidance, establishing a registry with specimen collection, and integrating laboratory findings in clinical practice for the individual patient.

    Public Health Action: Hemophilia is associated with substantial lifelong morbidity, excess premature deaths, and extensive health care needs throughout life. Through monitoring data from Community Counts, CDC will continue to characterize the benefits and adverse events associated with existing or new hemophilia treatment products, thereby contributing to maximizing the health and longevity of persons with hemophilia.

    Suggested citation for this article: Schieve LA, Byams VR, Dupervil B, et al. Evaluation of CDC’s Hemophilia Surveillance Program — Universal Data Collection (1998–2011) and Community Counts (2011–2019), United States . MMWR Surveill Summ 2020;69(No. SS-5):1–18.

    ss6905a1.htm?s_cid=ss6905a1_w

    ss6905a1-H.pdf

  • Content Notes:
    Background -- Comparison of UDC (1998–September 2011) and Community Counts (October 2011–Present) -- Evaluation of UDC and Community Counts -- Future Directions -- Conclusion -- References.
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