Implementation of Case-Based Surveillance and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction to Monitor Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens in Chad
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

All these words:

For very narrow results

This exact word or phrase:

When looking for a specific result

Any of these words:

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

None of these words:

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields



Publication Date Range:


Document Data


Document Type:






Clear All

Query Builder

Query box

Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page


Implementation of Case-Based Surveillance and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction to Monitor Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens in Chad

Filetype[PDF-813.43 KB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      J Infect Dis
    • Description:

      Meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) was introduced in Chad during 2011–2012. Meningitis surveillance has been conducted nationwide since 2003, with case-based surveillance (CBS) in select districts from 2012. In 2016, the MenAfriNet consortium supported Chad to implement CBS in 4 additional districts and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) at the national reference laboratory (NRL) to improve pathogen detection. We describe analysis of bacterial meningitis cases during 3 periods: pre-MACV (2010–2012), pre-MenAfriNet (2013–2015), and post-MenAfriNet (2016–2018).


      National surveillance targeted meningitis cases caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens, inoculated trans-isolate media, and/or isolates from suspected meningitis cases were tested via culture, latex, and/or rt-PCR; confirmed bacterial meningitis was defined by a positive result on any test. We calculated proportion of suspected cases with a specimen received by period, and proportion of specimens with a bacterial meningitis pathogen identified, by period, pathogen, and test.


      The NRL received specimens for 6.8% (876/12813), 46.4% (316/681), and 79.1% (787/995) of suspected meningitis cases in 2010–2012, 2013–2015, and 2016–2018, respectively, with a bacterial meningitis pathogen detected in 33.6% (294/876), 27.8% (88/316), and 33.2% (261/787) of tested specimens. The number of N. meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) among confirmed bacterial meningitis cases decreased from 254 (86.4%) during 2010–2012 to 2 (2.3%) during 2013–2015, with zero NmA cases detected after 2014. In contrast, proportional and absolute increases were seen between 2010–2012, 2013–2015, and 2016–2018 in cases caused by S. pneumoniae (5.1% [15/294], 65.9% [58/88], and 52.1% [136/261]), NmX (0.7% [2/294], 1.1% [1/88], and 22.2% [58/261]), and Hib (0.3% [1/294], 11.4% [10/88], and 14.9% [39/261]). Of specimens received at the NRL, proportions tested during the 3 periods were 47.7% (418), 53.2% (168), and 9.0% (71) by latex; 81.4% (713), 98.4% (311), and 93.9% (739) by culture; and 0.0% (0), 0.0% (0), and 90.5% (712) by rt-PCR, respectively. During the post-MenAfriNet period (2016–2018), 86.1% (678) of confirmed cases were tested by both culture and rt-PCR, with 12.5% (85) and 32.4% (220) positive by culture and rt-PCR, respectively.


      CBS implementation was associated with increased specimen referral. Increased detection of non-NmA cases could reflect changes in incidence or increased sensitivity of case detection with rt-PCR. Continued surveillance with the use of rt-PCR to monitor changing epidemiology could inform the development of effective vaccination strategies.

    • Pubmed ID:
    • Pubmed Central ID:
    • Document Type:
    • Name as Subject:
    • Place as Subject:
    • Collection(s):
    • Main Document Checksum:
    • File Type:

    You May Also Like

    Checkout today's featured content at