Anchorage Pull Testing For Fully Grouted Roof Bolts
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Anchorage Pull Testing For Fully Grouted Roof Bolts

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  • Description:
    Fully-grouted roof bolts comprise more than 80% of the primary roof supports used in U.S. coal mines. However, nearly 1,500 MSHA reportable, non-injury roof falls occur each year, and most of these are attributable to failure of the roof bolt system. Anchorage failure is one failure mechanism for fully-grouted bolts. As roof deformation works its way upward, the bolts can become heavily loaded near their upper ends. If the applied load exceeds the anchorage, the bolts will simply pull out. Research dating back 30 yrs indicates that this type of anchorage failure is most likely when the roof rock is weak, just where roof support is most critical. In soft shale or coal roof, the small amount of data available in the literature indicates that 20-30 in of resin anchorage may be required to achieve the full capacity of the bolt. In other words, the full resistance zone of a 60 in bolt may actually be just 30-40 in. Despite its potential importance, there is no widely accepted anchorage test for fully grouted bolts. Standard pull tests have sometimes been employed, but they provide no information on the anchorage near the top of the bolt. An alternative, first described more than 25 yrs ago in the U.S., is the short-encapsulation pull test (SEPT). With this test, the bolt is installed with only a short (1 ft or less) tube of resin. In recent years variations of this test have become international standards. v
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