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Chest Transmissibility Characteristics During Exposure To Single - And Combined-Axis Vibration - Introduction; Proceedings Of The First American Conference On Human Vibration
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    Ground, air, and water vehicles can expose humans to substantial multi-axis vibration. Multiple input/multiple output relationships or models exist for estimating frequency response functions of linear systems1, 2. These relationships have been applied by some investigators to evaluate the effects of occupied seat vibration3, 4. Using a multiple input/single output model, this study investigated the effects of single- and combined-axis vibration in the fore-and-aft (X), lateral (Y), and vertical (Z) directions on vibration transmission to the human chest. Frequency response functions (transmissibilities) were estimated and compared for the back-on and back-off postures. Methods A rigid seat with seat back was mounted onto the Six Degree-of-Freedom Motion Simulator (SIXMODE). A flat acceleration vibration signal was generated between 2 and 40 Hz at 1.0 ms-2 rms in the single and combined X, Y, Z, XY, XZ, YZ, and XYZ axes. The signals were shifted in time so that the combined inputs were not fully correlated. Lightweight triaxial accelerometers were used to measure accelerations at the seat base (input) and at the bony manubrium of the chest (output). The maximum of nine frequency response functions (H(?)) or transmissibilities were estimated from the auto- and cross-spectra. The system transfer matrix for the XYZ inputs and chest Z output is [ ] where PxZ, PyZ, and PzZ are the cross-spectra between the three inputs at the seat base and the Z output at the chest, respectively, and Pxx, Pxy,…zz are the auto- and cross-spectra between the input signals (? not shown in Eq. 1). Equation 1 can be similarly written for the chest X and Y outputs. Matlab® was used to estimate the auto- and cross-spectral densities for calculating the transmissibilities, ordinary coherences (for single inputs), partial coherences, and multiple coherences. Results Figure 1 illustrates the major chest transmissibilities observed for the two postures. Vertical vibration showed a consistent influence on the chest X response (Chest X/Z), most likely causing chest pitch. Some chest Z responses were observed with X-axis inputs, but the results were variable and difficult to interpret. In general, other factors besides the known inputs did not affect the transmissibilities shown in Figure 1 (Repeated Measures ANOVA, P<0.05). This was

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