Trends in Obesity Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014
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Trends in Obesity Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014

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  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      JAMA
    • Description:
      IMPORTANCE Previous analyses of obesity trends among children and adolescents showed an increase between 1988–1994 and 1999–2000, but no change between 2003–2004 and 2011–2012, except for a significant decline among children aged 2 to 5 years. OBJECTIVES To provide estimates of obesity and extreme obesity prevalence for children and adolescents for 2011–2014 and investigate trends by age between 1988–1994 and 2013–2014. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years with measured weight and height in the 1988–1994 through 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. EXPOSURES Survey period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex-specific 95th percentile on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI-for-age growth charts. Extreme obesity was defined as a BMI at or above 120% of the sex-specific 95th percentile on the CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Detailed estimates are presented for 2011–2014. The analyses of linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were conducted using 9 survey periods. Trend analyses between 2005–2006 and 2013–2014 also were conducted. RESULTS Measurements from 40 780 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.0 years; 48.8% female) between 1988–1994 and 2013–2014 were analyzed. Among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011–2014 was 17.0% (95% CI, 15.5%−18.6%) and extreme obesity was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.9%−6.8%). Among children aged 2 to 5 years, obesity increased from 7.2% (95% CI, 5.8%−8.8%) in 1988–1994 to 13.9% (95% CI,10.7%−17.7%) (P < .001) in 2003–2004 and then decreased to 9.4% (95% CI, 6.8%−12.6%)(P = .03) in 2013–2014. Among children aged 6 to 11 years, obesity increased from 11.3% (95% CI, 9.4%−13.4%) in 1988–1994 to 19.6% (95% CI, 17.1%−22.4%) (P < .001) in 2007–2008, and then did not change (2013–2014: 17.4% [95% CI, 13.8%−21.4%]; P = .44). Obesity increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years between 1988–1994 (10.5% [95% CI, 8.8%−12.5%]) and 2013–2014 (20.6% [95% CI, 16.2%−25.6%]; P < .001) as did extreme obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years (3.6% [95% CI, 2.5%−5.0%] in 1988–1994 to 4.3% [95% CI,3.0%−6.1%] in 2013–2014; P = .02) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (2.6% [95% CI,1.7%−3.9%] in 1988–1994 to 9.1% [95% CI, 7.0%−11.5%] in 2013–2014; P < .001). No significant trends were observed between 2005–2006 and 2013–2014 (P value range, .09-.87). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this nationally representative study of US children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011–2014 was 17.0% and extreme obesity was 5.8%. Between 1988–1994 and 2013–2014, the prevalence of obesity increased until 2003–2004 and then decreased in children aged 2 to 5 years, increased until 2007–2008 and then leveled off in children aged 6 to 11 years, and increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years.
    • Pubmed ID:
      27272581
    • Pubmed Central ID:
      PMC6361521
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