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Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Post exposure Prophylaxis
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  • Corporate Authors:
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd., NE, MS E-68, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
  • Description:
    These recommendations update the February 4,2002, guidelines developed by the Public Health Service for the use of zidovudine (ZDV) to reduce the risk for perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. This report provides healthcare providers with information for discussion with HIV-1-infected pregnant women to enable such women to make an informed decision regarding the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and use of elective cesarean delivery to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Various circumstances that commonly occur in clinical practice are presented, and the factors influencing treatment considerations are highlighted in this report. The Perinatal HIV Guidelines Working Group recognizes that strategies to prevent perinatal transmission and concepts related to management of HIV disease in pregnant women are rapidly evolving and will continually review new data and provide regular updates to the guidelines. The most recent information is available from the HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service (available at http.//www.hivatis.org). In February 1994, the results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 076 documented that ZDV chemoprophylaxis could reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission by nearly 70%. Epidemiologic data have since confirmed the efficacy of ZDV for reduction of perinatal transmission and have extended this efficacy to children of women with advanced disease, low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, and prior ZDV therapy. Additionally, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and in the treatment and monitoring of persons with HIV-1 disease. These advances have resulted in changes in standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1-infected adults. More aggressive combination drug regimens that maximally suppress viral replication are now recommended. Although considerations associated with pregnancy may affect decisions regarding timing and choice of therapy pregnancy is not a reason to defer standard therapy. Use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy requires unique considerations, including the possible need to alter dosage as a result of physiologic changes associated with pregnancy the potential for adverse short- or long-term effects on the fetus and newborn, and the effectiveness of the drugs in reducing the risk for perinatal transmission. Data to address many of these considerations are not yet available. Therefore, offering antiretroviral therapy to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy, whether primarily for HIV-1 infection, for reduction of perinatal transmission, or for both purposes, should be accompanied by a discussion of the known and unknown short- and long-term benefits and risks of such therapy to infected women and their infants. Standard antiretroviral therapy should be discussed with and offered to HIV-1-infected pregnant women. Additionally, to prevent perinatal transmission, ZDV chemoprophylaxis should be incorporated into the antiretroviral regimen.

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