Crotonaldehyde exposure in U.S. tobacco smokers and nonsmokers: NHANES 2005–2006 and 2011–2012
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Crotonaldehyde exposure in U.S. tobacco smokers and nonsmokers: NHANES 2005–2006 and 2011–2012
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  • Alternative Title:
    Environ Res
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    Introduction Crotonaldehyde is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that is a potent eye, respiratory, and skin irritant. Crotonaldehyde is a major constituent of tobacco smoke and its exposure can be quantified using its urinary metabolite N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (HPMM). A large-scale biomonitoring study is needed to determine HPMM levels, as a measure of crotonaldehyde exposure, in the general U.S. population. Materials and methods Urine samples were obtained as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 and 2011–2012 from participants who were at least six-years-old (N = 4,692). Samples were analyzed for HPMM using ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Exclusive tobacco smokers were distinguished from non-tobacco users through a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine data. Results Detection rate of HPMM among eligible samples was 99.9%. Sample-weighted, median urinary HPMM levels for smokers and non-users were 1.61 and 0.313 mg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis among smokers showed that HPMM was positively associated with serum cotinine, after controlling for survey year, urinary creatinine, age, sex, race, poverty level, body mass index, pre-exam fasting time, and food intake. Other significant predictors of urinary HPMM include sex (female > male), age (children > non-user adults), race (non-Hispanic Blacks < non-Hispanic Whites). Conclusions This study characterizes U.S. population exposure to crotonaldehyde and confirms that tobacco smoke is a major exposure source. Urinary HPMM levels were significantly higher among exclusive combusted tobacco users compared to non-users, and serum cotinine and cigarettes per day were significant predictors of increased urinary HPMM. This study also found that sex, age, ethnicity, pre-exam fasting time, and fruit consumption are related to urinary HPMM levels.
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