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Annual Total Medical Expenditures Associated with Hypertension by Diabetes Status in U.S. Adults
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  • Pubmed ID:
    29153119
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5819741
  • Description:
    Introduction

    Hypertension and diabetes, both independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, often coexist. The hypertension-increased medical expenditures by diabetes status is unclear, however. This study estimated annual total medical expenditures in U.S. adults by hypertension and diabetes status.

    Methods

    The study population consisted of 40,746 civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2013 or 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The authors separately estimated hypertension-increased medical expenditures using two-part econometric and generalized linear models for the total; diabetes (n=4,396); and non-diabetes (n=36,250) populations and adjusted the results into 2014 U.S. dollars. Data were analyzed in 2017 and estimated the hypertension-increased medical expenditures by type of medical service and payment source.

    Results

    The prevalence of hypertension was 34.9%, 78.3%, and 30.1% for the total, diabetes, and non-diabetes populations, respectively. The respective mean unadjusted annual per capita medical expenditures were $5,225, $12,715, and $4,390. After controlling for potential confounders, hypertension-increased expenditures were $2,565, $4,434, and $2,276 for total, diabetes, and non-diabetes populations, respectively (all p<0.001). The hypertension-increased expenditure was highest for inpatient stays among the diabetes population ($1,730, p<0.001), and highest for medication among the non-diabetes population ($687, p<0.001). By payment source, Medicare ranked first in hypertension-increased expenditures for the diabetes ($2,753) and second for the non-diabetes ($669) populations (both p<0.001).

    Conclusions

    Hypertension-increased medical expenditures were substantial and varied by medical service type and payment sources. These findings may be useful as inputs for cost-effectiveness evaluations of hypertension interventions by diabetes status.

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