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Medical Expenditures Associated With Hypertension in the U.S., 2000–2013
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    Trends of prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension have been documented in the U.S., but changes in medical expenditures associated with hypertension over time have not been evaluated. This study analyzed these expenditures during 2000–2013 among U.S. adults.


    Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed in 2016. The study population was non-institutionalized men and non-pregnant women aged ≥18 years. Hypertension was defined as ever been diagnosed with hypertension or currently taking antihypertensive medications. Medical expenditures included all payments to medical care providers. Expenditures associated with hypertension were estimated by two-part regression models and adjusted into 2015 U.S. dollars. Controlling variables included sociodemographic characteristics, marital status, insurance, region, smoking status, weight status, health status, and comorbidities. Trends were analyzed using joinpoint method.


    Total per-person annual expenditures associated with hypertension in 2000–2001 ($1,399) were not significantly different from those in 2012–2013 ($1,494) (average annual percent change [AAPC]= −0.6%, p=0.794), but annual national spending increased significantly from $58.7 billion to $109.1 billion (AAPC=8.3%, p=0.015), mainly because of the increase in the number of people treated for hypertension. Per-person outpatient payments were 22.7% higher in 2012–2013 than in 2000–2001 ($416 vs $322, p<0.05; AAPC=0.8%, p-trend 0.826). Payments for prescription medications took up a larger proportion of the medical expenditures associated with hypertension, compared to payments for outpatient or other services (33%–46%).


    During 2000–2013, annual national medical expenditures associated with hypertension increased significantly. Preventing hypertension could alleviate hypertension-associated economic burden.

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