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Receipt of selected preventive health services for women and men of reproductive age -- United States, 2011-2013
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    Appendix A. Services Recommended in Providing Quality Family Planning Services:Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs -- Appendix B. Adverse Health Outcomes Targeted for Prevention Through Services Recommended in Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs, by Age.

    Problem/Condition: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15–44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services. QFP describes how to provide these services and recommends using family planning and other primary care visits to screen for and offer the full range of these services. This report presents baseline estimates of the use of these preventive services before the publication of QFP that can be used to monitor progress toward improving the quality of preventive care received by women and men of reproductive age.

    Period Covered: 2011–2013.

    Description of the System: Three surveillance systems were used to document receipt of preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age as recommended in QFP. The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) collects data on factors that influence reproductive health in the United States since 1973, with a focus on fertility, sexual activity, contraceptive use, reproductive health care, family formation, child care, and related topics. NSFG uses a stratified, multistage probability sample to produce nationally representative estimates for the U.S. household population of women and men aged 15–44 years. This report uses data from the 2011–2013 NSFG.

    The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing, state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected maternal behaviors and experiences that occur before, during, and shortly after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants in the United States. Annual PRAMS data sets are created and used to produce statewide estimates of preconception and perinatal health behaviors and experiences. This report uses PRAMS data for 2011–2012 from 11 states (Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia).

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized civilians in the United States. NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics, including the prevalence, distribution, and effects of illness and disability and the services rendered for or because of such conditions. Households are identified through a multistage probability household sampling design, and estimates are produced using weights that account for the sampling design, nonresponse, and poststratification adjustments. This report uses data from the 2013 NHIS for women aged 18–44 years.

    Results: Many preventive health services recommended in QFP were not received by all women and men of reproductive age. For contraceptive services, including contraceptive counseling and advice, 46.5% of women aged 15–44 years at risk for unintended pregnancy received services in the past year, and 4.5% of men who had vaginal intercourse in the past year received services in that year. For sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, among all women aged 15–24 years who had oral, anal, or vaginal sex with an opposite sex partner in the past year, 37.5% were tested for chlamydia in that year. Among persons aged 15–44 years who were at risk because they were not in a mutually monogamous relationship during the past year, 45.3% of women were tested for chlamydia and 32.5% of men were tested for any STD in that year. For preconception care and related preventive health services, data from selected states indicated that 33.2% of women with a recent live birth (i.e., 2–9 months postpartum) talked with a health care professional about improving their health before their most recent pregnancy; of selected preconception counseling topics, the most frequently discussed was taking vitamins with folic acid before pregnancy (81.2%), followed by achieving a healthy weight before pregnancy (62.9%) and how drinking alcohol (60.3%) or smoking (58.2%) during pregnancy can affect a baby. Nationally, among women aged 18–44 years irrespective of pregnancy status, 80.9% had their blood pressure checked by a health care professional and 31.7% received an influenza vaccine in the past year; 54.5% of those with high blood pressure were tested for diabetes, 44.9% of those with obesity had a health care professional talk with them about their diet, and 55.2% of those who were current smokers had a health professional talk with them about their smoking in the past year. Among all women aged 21–44 years, 81.6% received a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in the past 3 years.

    Receipt of certain preventive services varied by age and race/ethnicity. Among women with a recent live birth, the percentage of those who talked with a health care professional about improving their health before their most recent pregnancy increased with age (range: 25.9% and 25.2% for women aged ≤19 and 20–24 years, respectively, to 35.9% and 37.8% for women aged 25–34 and ≥35 years, respectively). Among women with a recent live birth, the percentage of those who talked with a health care professional about improving their health before their most recent pregnancy was higher for non-Hispanic white (white) (35.2%) compared with non-Hispanic black (black) (30.0%) and Hispanic (26.0%) women. Conversely, across most STD screening services evaluated, testing was highest among black women and men and lowest among their white counterparts.

    Receipt of many preventive services recommended in QFP increased consistently across categories of family income and continuity of health insurance coverage. Prevalence of service receipt was highest among women in the highest family income category (>400% of federal poverty level [FPL]) and among women with insurance coverage for each of the following: contraceptive services among women at risk for unintended pregnancy; medical services beyond advice to help achieve pregnancy; vaccinations (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus [HPV], ever; tetanus, past 10 years; influenza, past year); discussions with a health care professional about improving health before pregnancy and taking vitamins with folic acid; blood pressure and diabetes screening; discussions with a health care professional in the past year about diet, among those with obesity; discussions with a health care professional in the past year about smoking, among current smokers; Pap tests within the past 3 years; and mammograms within the past 2 years.

    Interpretation: Before 2014, many women and men of reproductive age were not receiving several of the preventive services recommended for them in QFP. Although differences existed by age and race/ethnicity, across the range of recommended services, receipt was consistently lower among women and men with lower family income and greater instability in health insurance coverage.

    Public Health Action: Information in this report on baseline receipt during 2011–2013 of preventive services for women and men of reproductive age can be used to target improvements in the use of recommended services through the development of research priorities, information for decision makers, and public health practice. Health care administrators and practitioners can use the information to identify subpopulations with the greatest need for preventive services and make informed decisions on resource allocation. Public health researchers can use the information to guide research on the determinants of service use and factors that might increase use of preventive services. Policymakers can use this information to evaluate the impact of policy changes and assess resource needs for effective programs, research, and surveillance on the use of preventive health services for women and men of reproductive age.

    Suggested citation for this article: Pazol K, Robbins CL, Black LI, et al. Receipt of Selected Preventive Health Services for Women and Men of Reproductive Age — United States, 2011–2013. MMWR Surveill Summ 2017;66(No. SS-20):1–31. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6620a1.

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