Surveillance for and comparison of birth defect prevalences in two geographic areas--United States, 1983-88; Influenza--United States, 1988-89
Published Date:March 19, 1993
Corporate Authors:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) ; National Center for Environmental Health (U.S.), Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. ; National Center for Infectious Diseases (U.S.), Division of Viral and Rckettsial Diseases. ; ... More ▼
Disease Outbreaks/United States
Influenza, Human/Epidemiology/United States
Influenza, Human/Mortality/United States
Population Surveillance/United States
Series:MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries ; v. 42, no. SS-1
Description:Most recent reports published in MMWR Surveillance summaries -- Surveillance for and comparison of birth defect prevalences in two geographic areas--United States / Jane Schulman, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation; Larry D. Edmonds, Anne B. McClearn, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center for Environmental Health; Nancy Jensvold, Gary M. Shaw, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation -- Influenza--United States, 1988-89 / Louisa E. Chapman, Margaret A. Tipple, Nancy J. Cox, Lawrence B. Schonberger, [et al.] -- State and Territorial Epidemiologists and Laboratory Directors
Surveillance for and comparison of birth defect prevalences in two geographic areas--United States: "PROBLEM/CONDITION: CDC and a number of states have developed surveillance systems to monitor the birth prevalence of major defects. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report covers birth defects surveillance in Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia and selected jurisdictions in California for the years 1983-1988. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The California Birth Defects Monitoring Program and the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program are two population based surveillance systems that employ similar data collection methods. The prevalence estimates for 44 diagnostic categories are based on data from 1983 to 1988 for 639,837 births in California and 152,970 births in metropolitan Atlanta. The prevalences in the two areas are compared adjusting for race, sex and maternal age using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Regional differences in the prevalence of aortic stenosis, fetal alcohol syndrome, hip dislocation/dysplasia, microcephalus, obstruction of the kidney/ureter, and scoliosis/lordosis may be attributable to general diagnostic variability. However, differences in the prevalences of arm/hand limb reduction, encephalocele, spina bifida, or trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) are probably not attributable to differences in ascertainment because these defects are relatively easy to diagnose. INTERPRETATION: Regional differences in prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination may affect prevalences of trisomy 21 and spina bifida. However, the reason for differences in arm/hand limb reduction is unknown, but may be related to variability in environmental exposure, heterogeneity in gene pool, or random variation. ACTIONS TAKEN: Because of the similarities of these data bases, several collaborative studies are being implemented. In particular, the differences in the birth prevalence of spina bifida and Down Syndrome will focus attention on the impact of prenatal diagnosis."
Influenza--United States, 1988-89: "During the 1989-90 influenza season, 98% of all influenza viruses isolated in the United States and reported to CDC were influenza A. Almost all those that were antigenically characterized were similar to influenza A/Shanghai/11/87(H3N2), a component of the 1989-90 influenza vaccine. Regional and widespread influenza activity began to be reported in late December 1989, peaked in mid-January 1990, and declined rapidly through early April 1990. Most of the outbreaks reported to CDC were among nursing-home residents. Considerable influenza-associated mortality was reflected in the percentage of deaths due to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) reported through the CDC 121 Cities Surveillance System from early January through early April. More than 80% of all reported P&I deaths were among persons greater than or equal to 65 years. In contrast to the predominance of influenza A during 1989-90, during the 1990-91 influenza season 86% of all influenza virus isolations reported were influenza B. Widespread influenza activity was reported from mid-January through April 1991, with regional activity extending into May. Outbreaks were reported primarily among schoolchildren, and no evidence of excess influenza-associated mortality was found. Almost all the influenza B isolates tested were related to influenza B/Yamagata/16/88, a component of the 1990-91 influenza vaccine, but were antigenically closer to B/Panama/45/90, a minor variant."
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