Variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites among pregnant women in Rhode Island
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Variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites among pregnant women in Rhode Island
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  • Alternative Title:
    Environ Health
  • Description:
    Background Organophospate flame retardants (PFRs) are chemicals of emerging concern due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant formulations. We describe the occurrence, variability, and predictors of urinary metabolites of PFRs among pregnant women. Methods In 2014–2015, 59 women from Providence, RI provided up to 3 spot urine samples during pregnancy (~12, 28, and 35 weeks’ gestation). We created a pooled urine sample per woman and measured nine relevant metabolites in individual and pooled samples. We used linear mixed models to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) across the 3 measurements and to assess sociodemographic and dietary predictors of PFRs. Results The median (IQR) of bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate (BCEP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), the metabolites most frequently detected, from pooled samples were: 0.31 μg/L (0.17–0.54), 1.18 μg/L (0.64–2.19), 0.93 μg/L (0.72–1.97), respectively. We observed fair to good reproducibility for BCEP (ICC = 0.50), BDCPP (ICC = 0.60), and DPhP (ICC = 0.43), and excellent agreement between the urinary flame retardant metabolite concentrations averaged across pregnancy versus pooled urine sample concentrations for BCEP (ICC = 0.95), BDCPP (ICC = 0.89), and DPhP (ICC = 0.93). Adjusting for pertinent sociodemographic factors and gestational week of urine collection, each 1 kg increase in pre-pregnancy weight was associated with greater BCEP (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.1, 2.1), BDCPP (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.3, 2.7), and DPhP (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.0, 1.1). Dietary factors were generally not associated with urinary flame retardant metabolites. Conclusions Urinary concentrations of BCEP, BDCPP, and DPhP were frequently detected among women in this pilot study and had fair reproducibility across pregnancy. Body size may be an important predictor of urinary flame retardant metabolite concentrations. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12940-017-0247-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
  • Pubmed ID:
    28399857
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5387223
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