Decline in Emergency Department Visits for Acute Gastroenteritis among Children in 10 US States Following Implementation of Rotavirus Vaccination, 2003–2013
Published Date:Jul 2016
Source:Pediatr Infect Dis J. 35(7):782-786.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC5113824
Funding:CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
Rotavirus vaccination of all infants began in the United States in 2006. While the effect of vaccination on childhood hospitalizations for rotavirus have been well described, the effects of rotavirus vaccine on ED visits are less well documented.
Using the State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) for 10 US states, we compared rates of gastroenteritis- and rotavirus-coded ED visits among children < 5 years of age in pre-vaccine (2003–2006) with post-vaccine (2008–2013) years; 2007 was excluded as a transition year. We analyzed ED visit rates by age group, sex, race, and rotavirus season.
The pre-vaccine annual gastroenteritis-coded ED visit rate among children < 5 years of age of 426 per 10,000 (annual range, 396–477 per 10,000) declined to 382 per 10,000 in post-vaccine years, a 10.3% (±0.3%, p<.0001) rate reduction overall. Compared to pre-vaccine years, annual ED visit rates for gastroenteritis decreased by 6.5% (±0.6%) in 2008, 12.3% (±0.6%) in 2010, 14.8% (±0.5%) in 2011, 20.4% (±0.5%) in 2012 and 10.1% (±0.6%) in 2013; a small increase of 1.8% (±0.6%) was seen in 2009 (p<.0001 for all individual comparisons). Declines were similar by sex and race and were greater in children <2 years of age (range 14.1–20.6%, p<.0001) than older children (increase of 3.3% ± 0.6%, p<.0001). A decline of 21.2% (±0.4%, p<.0001) in ED visits was seen during the rotavirus season months from January through June versus an increase of 9.5% (±0.6%, p<.0001) during July to December. ED visits specifically coded for rotavirus showed more prominent declines than for all gastroenteritis.
ED visits for gastroenteritis in US children have declined since introduction of rotavirus vaccine.
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