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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Functional Outcomes in a School-Based Sample of Children
  • Published Date:
    November 25 2015
  • Source:
    J Atten Disord. 24(9):1345-1354
  • Language:

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  • Alternative Title:
    J Atten Disord
  • Description:
    Objective Investigate prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities in community-based samples of schoolchildren with/without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method Teachers and parents screened children in South Carolina (SC; n=4,604) and Oklahoma (OK; n=12,626) for ADHD. Parents of high-screen and selected low-screen children received diagnostic interviews (SC: n=479; OK: n=577). Results Psychiatric disorders were increased among children with ADHD and were associated with low academic performance. Conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) were associated with grade retention (ODD/CD+ADHD: OR=3.0; CI=1.5-5.9; ODD/CD without ADHD: OR=4.0; CI=1.7-9.7). School discipline/police involvement was associated with ADHD alone (OR=3.2; CI=1.5-6.8), ADHD+CD/ODD (OR=14.4, CI=7.3-27.1), ADHD+anxiety/depression (OR=4.8, CI=1.6-14.8) and CD/ODD alone (OR=2.8, CI=1.2-6.4). Children with ADHD+anxiety/depression had ten-fold risk for poor academic performance (odds ratio (OR)=10.8; CI=2.4-49.1). This should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence interval. Conclusion Most children with ADHD have psychiatric comorbidities, which worsens functional outcomes. The pattern of outcomes varies by type of comorbidity.
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