Biodiesel versus diesel exposure: Enhanced pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and differential morphological changes in the mouse lung
Published Date:Jul 22 2013
Source:Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 272(2):373-383.
Biodiesel Particle Retention
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4664159
Funding:CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
HL-070755/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
OH008282/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
R01 ES-019304/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
U19 AI-068021/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
Description:The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D.
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