Detailed mechanistic investigation into the S-nitrosation of cysteamine
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Detailed mechanistic investigation into the S-nitrosation of cysteamine

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  • Alternative Title:
    Can J Chem
  • Description:
    The nitrosation of cysteamine (H2NCH2CH2SH) to produce cysteamine-S-nitrosothiol (CANO) was studied in slightly acidic medium by using nitrous acid prepared in situ. The stoichiometry of the reaction was H2NCH2CH2SH + HNO2 → H2NCH2CH2SNO + H2O. On prolonged standing, the nitrosothiol decomposed quantitatively to yield the disulfide, cystamine: 2H2NCH2CH2SNO → H2NCH2CH2S-SCH2CH2NH2 + 2NO. NO2 and N2O3 are not the primary nitrosating agents, since their precursor (NO) was not detected during the nitrosation process. The reaction is first order in nitrous acid, thus implicating it as the major nitrosating agent in mildly acidic pH conditions. Acid catalyzes nitrosation after nitrous acid has saturated, implicating the protonated nitrous acid species, the nitrosonium cation (NO(+)) as a contributing nitrosating species in highly acidic environments. The acid catalysis at constant nitrous acid concentrations suggests that the nitrosonium cation nitrosates at a much higher rate than nitrous acid. Bimolecular rate constants for the nitrosation of cysteamine by nitrous acid and by the nitrosonium cation were deduced to be 17.9 ± 1.5 (mol/L)(-1) s(-1) and 6.7 × 10(4) (mol/L)(-1) s(-1), respectively. Both Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions were effective catalysts for the formation and decomposition of the cysteamine nitrosothiol. Cu(II) ions could catalyze the nitrosation of cysteamine in neutral conditions, whereas Cu(I) could only catalyze in acidic conditions. Transnitrosation kinetics of CANO with glutathione showed the formation of cystamine and the mixed disulfide with no formation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The nitrosation reaction was satisfactorily simulated by a simple reaction scheme involving eight reactions.
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