Vasoactive Exposures during Pregnancy and Risk of Microtia
Published Date:Nov 24 2012
Source:Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 97(1):53-59.
Pregnancy In Diabetics
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4521508
Funding:AVU3/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
U01DD000493/DD/NCBDD CDC HHS/United States
Little is known about the etiology of nonsyndromic microtia. This study investigated the hypothesis that microtia is caused by vascular disruption.
The study analyzed data from the population-based National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) for deliveries between 1997 and 2005. Four hundred eleven nonsyndromic cases of microtia, with or without additional defects, were compared to 6560 nonmalformed infants with respect to maternal exposures to vasoactive medications and smoking during the periconceptional period and conditions that have previously been associated with vascular events (multiple gestation, maternal history of type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes, and hypertension). Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable models, controlling for the effects of race/ethnicity, education, periconceptional folic acid use, and study center.
Risk estimates for vasoactive medications and smoking were not meaningfully increased. Maternal type 1/2 diabetes was diagnosed before or during the index pregnancy in 4% and 1% of cases, respectively, compared to 1% and 0.05% of controls; the adjusted OR for these two groups combined was 7.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–13.1). Gestational diabetes was observed for 9% of cases and 6% of controls; the OR was moderately elevated (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9–2.0). ORs were also increased for multiple gestations (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5–4.2) and pre-existing hypertension (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0–2.5).
Because ORs were only elevated for diabetes and not for vasoactive exposures or other potential vascular events, findings suggest that some microtia occurrences may be part of the diabetic embryopathy rather than manifestations of vascular disruption.
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