Bridging Research and Practice
Published Date:Sep 2012
Source:Am J Prev Med. 2012; 43(3):337-350.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC3592983
Funding:1R01CA124404-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
DP000060-04/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
P30 DK092950/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
TL1RR024995/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
U48 DP000060/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U48/DP001903/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
UL1 TR000448/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
UL1RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
Z99 MH999999/Intramural NIH HHS/United States
Theories and frameworks (hereafter called models) enhance dissemination and implementation (D&I) research by making the spread of evidence-based interventions more likely. This work organizes and synthesizes these models by: (1) developing an inventory of models used in D&I research; (2) synthesizing this information; and (3) providing guidance on how to select a model to inform study design and execution.
This review began with commonly cited models and model developers and used snowball sampling to collect models developed in any year from journal articles, presentations, and books. All models were analyzed and categorized in 2011 based on three author-defined variables: construct flexibility, focus on dissemination and/or implementation activities (D/I), and the socio-ecological framework (SEF) level. Five-point scales were used to rate construct flexibility from broad to operational and D/I activities from dissemination-focused to implementation-focused. All SEF levels (system, community, organization, and individual) applicable to a model were also extracted. Models that addressed policy activities were noted.
Sixty-one models were included in this review. Each of the five categories in the construct flexibility and D/I scales had/contained at least four models. Models were distributed across all levels of the SEF; the fewest models (n=8) addressed policy activities. To assist researchers in selecting and utilizing a model throughout the research process, the authors present and explain examples of how models have been used.
These findings may enable researchers to better identify and select models to inform their D&I work.
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