Non-Invasive Sample Collection for Respiratory Virus Testing by Multiplex PCR
Published Date:Aug 19 2011
Source:J Clin Virol. 2011; 52(3):210-214.
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Nasal Lavage Fluid
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Respiratory Tract Infections
Sensitivity And Specificity
Upper Respiratory Infection
Pubmed Central ID:PMC3196801
Funding:1K23AI079401/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
1U01AI074419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
1U01AI082184/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
1U01AI082482/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
1U18IP000303/IP/NCIRD CDC HHS/United States
K-24 HD047249/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
K01 CI000577/CI/NCPDCID CDC HHS/United States
K23 AI079401/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
K23 AI079401-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
K24 HD047249/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
K24 HD047249-04/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
U01A1061611/PHS HHS/United States
Identifying respiratory pathogens within populations is difficult because invasive sample collection, such as with nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), is generally required. PCR technology could allow for non-invasive sampling methods.
Evaluate the utility of non-invasive sample collection using anterior nare swabs and facial tissues for respiratory virus detection by multiplex PCR.
Children aged 1 month – 17 years evaluated in a pediatric emergency department for respiratory symptoms had a swab, facial tissue, and NPA sample collected. All samples were tested for respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR. Viral detection rates were calculated for each collection method. Sensitivity and specificity of swabs and facial tissues were calculated using NPA as the gold standard.
285 samples from 95 children were evaluated (92 swab-NPA pairs, 91 facial tissue-NPA pairs). 91% of NPA, 82% of swab, and 77% of tissue samples were positive for ≥ 1 virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) were most common. Overall, swabs were positive for 74% of virus infections, and facial tissues were positive for 58%. Sensitivity ranged from 17–94% for swabs and 33–84% for tissues. Sensitivity was highest for RSV (94% swabs and 84% tissues). Specificity was ≥ 95% for all viruses except HRV for both collection methods.
Sensitivity of anterior nare swabs and facial tissues in the detection of respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR varied by virus type. Given its simplicity and specificity, non-invasive sampling for PCR testing may be useful for conducting epidemiologic or surveillance studies in settings where invasive testing is impractical or not feasible.
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