THRIVES : a global technical package to prevent violence against children
Published Date:March 2015
Corporate Authors:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) ; National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (U.S.). Division of Violence Prevention. ; Center for Global Health (U.S.). Division of Global HIV/AIDS. ; ... More ▼
Description:Violence against children is highly prevalent. More than 1 billion children—half of all children in the world—are exposed to violence every year (U.S. Government Action Plan on Children in Adversity 2014). The violence children are exposed to includes physical, sexual, and emotional forms of abuse (Bott 2012, Lansford 2012). It also includes physical, medical, and emotional neglect by caregivers as well as witnessing violence between adults, often their own parents, as well as peers (Krug 2002). These forms of violence occur in homes, schools, and streets, with contexts ranging from war to gangs to dating to child-raising (Krug 2002, Lozano 2012, Mercy 2015). What these forms of violence share is their potential for life-long health and social consequences for children (Felitti 1998, Anda 2010). By extension, these childhood exposures also impact the very foundation of human capital that underlies the social and economic development of communities and nations
The public health consequences of violence are pervasive, enduring, and costly. Though violence against children is often hidden, its consequences eventually surface (Anda 2010). Strong evidence confirms that childhood violence increases the risks of injury, HIV, mental health problems, delayed cognitive development, reproductive health problems, involvement in sex trafficking, and non- communicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs can cause damage to the nervous, endocrine, circulatory, musculo- skeletal, reproductive, respiratory, and immune systems. In fact, exposure to childhood violence leads to graded increases in the four NCDs—cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes— that accounted for 60% of the 53 million deaths globally in 2010 (Anderson 2008, Baral 2012, Benjet 2010, Devries 2011, Dietz 1999, Dube 2001, Fisher 2012, Garcia-Moreno 2013, Hillis 2000, Hillis 2004, Jewkes 2010, Kessler 2010, Lozano 2012, Machtinger 2012a, Machtinger 2012b, Mbagaya 2013, Norton 2013, Reza 2009, Silverman 2009, Tharp 2012, Williamson 2002). Given the high prevalence of violence against children and its vast consequences, the associated economic impact is substantial (Patel 2012). In the United States, for example, the total lifetime economic burden associated with child maltreatment—only one type of violence against children—was $124 billion in 2008 (Fang 2012).
THRIVES represents a select group of complementary strategies that reflect the best available evidence to help countries sharpen their focus on priorities with the greatest potential to reduce violence against children.
These strategies include:
• T – Training in parenting
• H – Household economic strengthening
• R – Reduced violence through legal protection
• I – Improved services
• V – Values and norms that protect children
• E – Education and life skills
• S – Surveillance and evaluation
Suggested Citation: Hillis SD, Mercy JA, Saul J, Gleckel J, Abad N, Kress H. THRIVES: A Global Technical Package to Prevent Violence Against Children. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2015.
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