Prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Children and Adolescents From 2001 to 2009
Published Date:May 7 2014
Source:JAMA. 2014; 311(17):1778-1786.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4368900
Funding:1U18DP002709/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
200-2010-35171/PHS HHS/United States
8 UL1 TR000077/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
DP-05-069/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
DP-10-001/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
P30 DK57516/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
PA00097/PHS HHS/United States
U01 DP000244/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U01 DP000246/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U01 DP000247/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U01 DP000248/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U01 DP000250/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U01 DP000254/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U18 DP003256/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U18DP000247-06A1/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U18DP002708-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U18DP002710-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U18DP002714/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
U48/CCU419249/PHS HHS/United States
U48/CCU519239/PHS HHS/United States
U48/CCU819241-3/PHS HHS/United States
U48/CCU919219/PHS HHS/United States
U58/CCU019235-4/PHS HHS/United States
UL1 RR029882/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
UL1 TR000154/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
UL1 TR000423/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
UL1 TR00423/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
UL1RR029882/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
Despite concern about an “epidemic,” there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups.
To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population was determined by the 2001 and 2009 bridged-race intercensal population estimates for geographic sites and membership counts for the health plan.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
Prevalence (per 1000) of physician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth aged 0 through 19 years and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10 through 19 years.
In 2001, 4958 of 3.3 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.48 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.44–1.52). In 2009, 6666 of 3.4 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.93 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.88–1.97). In 2009, the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 2.55 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 2.48–2.62) and the lowest was 0.35 per 1000 in American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.26–0.47) and type 1 diabetes increased between 2001 and 2009 in all sex, age, and race/ethnic subgroups except for those with the lowest prevalence (age 0–4 years and American Indians). Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 21.1% (95% CI, 15.6%–27.0%) increase in type 1 diabetes over 8 years. In 2001, 588 of 1.7 million youth were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.34 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.31–0.37). In 2009, 819 of 1.8 million were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.46 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.43–0.49). In 2009, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 1.20 per 1000 among American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.96–1.51); 1.06 per 1000 among black youth (95% CI, 0.93–1.22); 0.79 per 1000 among Hispanic youth (95% CI, 0.70–0.88); and 0.17 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 0.15–0.20). Significant increases occurred between 2001 and 2009 in both sexes, all age-groups, and in white, Hispanic, and black youth, with no significant changes for Asian Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 30.5% (95% CI, 17.3%–45.1%) overall increase in type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
Between 2001 and 2009 in 5 areas of the United States, the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents increased. Further studies are required to determine the causes of these increases.
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