A combined oral contraceptive affects mucosal SHIV susceptibility factors in a pigtail macaque model
Published Date:Dec 23 2014
Source:J Med Primatol. 44(2):97-107.
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
Disease Models, Animal
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Non-Human Primate (NHP)
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4355188
Funding:CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
Y01 AI000681-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
Y1-A1-0681-02/PHS HHS/United States
Injectable hormonal contraception may increase women’s risk of HIV acquisition, and can affect biological risk factors in animal models of HIV. We established, for the first time, a model to investigate whether combined oral contraceptives (COC) alter SHIV susceptibility in macaques.
Seven pigtail macaques were administered a monophasic levonorgestrel (LNG)/ethinyl estradiol (EE) COC at 33% or 66% of the human dose for 60 days. Menstrual cycling, vaginal epithelial thickness and other SHIV susceptibility factors were monitored for a mean of 18 weeks.
Mean vaginal epithelial thicknesses was 290.8 μm at baseline and 186.2 μm during COC (p=0.0141, Mann Whitney test). Vaginal pH decreased from 8.5 during to 6.5 post- treatment (0.0176 two-tailed t-test). Measured microflora was unchanged.
COC caused thinning of the vaginal epithelium and vaginal pH changes, which may increase SHIV susceptibility. 0.033 mg LNG + 0.0066 mg EE appeared effective in suppressing ovulation.
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