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Vitamin D in youth with Type 1 diabetes: prevalence of insufficiency and association with insulin resistance in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study
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  • Description:

    To determine the prevalence of plasma vitamin D insufficiency in individuals with Type 1 diabetes and to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of plasma vitamin D with insulin resistance.


    Participants from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study [n = 1426; mean age 11.2 years (sd 3.9)] had physician-diagnosed Type 1 diabetes [diabetes duration mean 10.2 months (sd 6.5)] with data available at baseline and follow-up (approximately 12 and 24 months after baseline). Insulin resistance was estimated using a validated equation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association of plasma vitamin D with insulin resistance, adjusting for potential confounders.


    Forty-nine per cent of individuals had plasma vitamin D < 50 nmol/l and 26% were insulin resistant. In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, participants who had higher plasma vitamin D (65 nmol/l) had lower odds of prevalent insulin resistance than participants with lower plasma vitamin D (25 nmol/l) (odds ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85). This association was attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI z-score, which could be a confounder or a mediator (odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.64–1.03). In longitudinal multivariate analyses, individuals with higher plasma vitamin D at baseline had lower odds of incident insulin resistance, but this was not significant (odds ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.63–1.14).


    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in individuals with Type 1 diabetes and may increase risk for insulin resistance. Additional prospective studies are needed to determine the association between plasma vitamin D and insulin resistance, and to further examine the role of adiposity on this association.

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  • Funding:
    00097/PHS HHS/United States
    1U18DP002709/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    1UL1RR026314-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    DK056350/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
    DP-05-069/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    DP-10-001/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    M01 RR00069/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    M01RR00037/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    P30DK57516/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
    R01 DK077949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
    R01 DK077949/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
    U01 DP000244/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000245/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000246/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000248/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000254/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01DP000247/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP000247-06A1/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP002708-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP002710-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP002714/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U48/CCU419249/PHS HHS/United States
    U48/CCU519239/PHS HHS/United States
    U48/CCU819241-3/PHS HHS/United States
    U48/CCU919219/PHS HHS/United States
    U58/CCU019235-4/PHS HHS/United States
    U58CCU919256/PHS HHS/United States
    UL1 RR029882/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    UL1 TR000077/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
    UL1RR029882/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
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