Evaluating the effects of maternal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene on oral clefts among offspring in Texas: 1999-2008
Published Date:Jul 25 2013
Source:Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 97(8):532-537.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC3771492
Funding:1R03DE02173901A1/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
R03 DE021739/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/United States
U01DD000494/DD/NCBDD CDC HHS/United States
There is evidence from previous studies that maternal occupational exposure to hazardous air pollutants is positively associated with oral clefts, however, studies evaluating the association between residential exposure to these toxicants and oral clefts are lacking. Therefore, our goal was to conduct a case-control study examining the association between estimated maternal residential exposure to benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) and the risk of oral clefts among offspring.
Data on 6,045 non-syndromic isolated oral cleft cases (3,915 cleft lip with or without cleft palate [CL±P] and 2,130 non-syndromic isolated cleft palate [CP] cases) delivered between 1999 and 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. The control group was a sample of unaffected live births, frequency matched to cases on year of birth. Census tract-level estimates of annual average exposures were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005 Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5) for each pollutant and assigned to each subject based on maternal residence during pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between estimated maternal exposure to each pollutant (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) separately and the risk of oral clefts in offspring.
High estimated maternal exposure to benzene was not associated with oral clefts, compared with low estimated exposure (CL±P adjusted OR=0.95; 95% CI=0.81-1.12; CP adjusted OR=0.85; 95% CI=0.67-1.09). Similar results were seen for the other pollutants.
In our study, there was no evidence that maternal exposure to environmental levels of BTEX was associated with oral clefts.
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