Risk of colorectal cancer associated with active smoking among female teachers
Published Date:Apr 10 2013
Source:Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(7):1291-1304.
Funding:1U58 DP000807-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
HHSN261201000034C/PHS HHS/United States
HHSN261201000035C/PHS HHS/United States
HHSN261201000036C/PHS HHS/United States
K05 CA136967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
R01 CA077398/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
R01 CA77398/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
The objective of this study was to examine the risk of colorectal cancer associated with active smoking among members of the California Teachers Study (CTS), a large cohort of female public school employees for whom highly detailed smoking information is available.
The analysis was conducted among the 122,264 CTS participants who lived in California at cohort entry in 1995/1996, had no prior history of colorectal cancer, and provided detailed smoking information. 1,205 cases of invasive colorectal cancer prospectively diagnosed in 1995–2009 were identified from the California Cancer Registry, including 650 in the proximal colon, 267 in the distal colon, and 288 in the rectum. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age at cohort entry, and adjusted for race/ethnicity.
Compared to never smokers, current smokers had an approximately 30 % increased risk of colorectal cancer. Overall, a slightly elevated risk was also noted for former smokers. Among former smokers, risks appeared to remain elevated for up to 20 years following cessation. Risks among former and current smokers increased with greater intensity and duration of smoking. Little evidence for heterogeneity in risk was noted for colon versus rectal cancer or for different subsites within the colon.
These results provide convincing evidence that heavy and/or long-term smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the colon and rectum. Such evidence should be considered when updating screening guidelines to include targeting people with long active smoking histories.
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