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An Atlas of Salmonella in the United States, 1968-2011
  • Published Date:
    3/27/14
  • Language:
    English
Filetype[PDF-161.59 MB]


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An Atlas of Salmonella in the United States, 1968-2011
Details:
  • Corporate Authors:
    National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.). Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.
  • Description:
    An Atlas of Salmonella in the United States, 1968-2011 summarizes 42 years of laboratory-confirmed surveillance data on Salmonella isolates (pure strains separated from specimens with more than one bacteria) from humans. It includes: Analyses by age, sex, geography, and season, Reports of Salmonella isolates from animals and related sources (e.g., environment and feeds), Salmonella serotype reports.

    Salmonellosis is estimated to cause more than 1.2 million illnesses each year in the United States, with more than 23,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths. Salmonella infections most often cause gastroenteritis, which can range from mild to severe. However, invasive infections can also occur and can be severe and life-threatening.

    National surveillance for Salmonella infections was established in the United States in 1962. Clinical diagnostic laboratories submit Salmonella isolates from human clinical specimens to state and territorial public health laboratories, where they are confirmed and serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White scheme. Reports of these laboratory-confirmed Salmonella isolates are then submitted by state and territorial public health de¬partments to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2). Unusual or untypable serotypes are forwarded to the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory at CDC for further characterization or confirmation; results are reported back to state and territorial public health laborato¬ries. Serotyping provides a consistent subtyping scheme for that has changed little over time, permitting analysis of trends in surveillance data. In the United States, serotype-specific Salmonella surveillance is conducted to define endemic patterns of salmonellosis, to detect outbreaks, to identify temporal trends in disease transmission, and to monitor the impact of control efforts. This report summarizes 42 years of surveillance data on Sal¬monella isolates from humans, and includes analyses by age, sex, geography, and season.

    In addition to reports of isolates from humans, reports of Salmonella isolates from animals and related sources (e.g., environment and feeds) are included in this report; these data come from the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). These isolates are submitted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States for serotyping. Clinical animal isolates (referred to as “clinical/non-human”) are Salmonella isolates from animals with clinical signs consistent with salmonellosis; “non-clinical/non-human” isolates are Salmonella isolates identified through herd and flock monitoring and surveillance, feed sample testing, environmental testing, and USDA-FSIS food testing programs.

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