National Enteric Disease Surveillance : COVIS annual summary, 2009
Published Date:November 2011
Corporate Authors:National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.).Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.
Description:Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness (COVIS) annual summary, 2009; summary of human Vibrio cases reported to CDC, 2009.
The Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance (COVIS) system is a national surveillance system for human infections caused by all species of Vibrio; the COVIS database is maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Information from COVIS has been used to determine host, food, and environmental risk factors for Vibrio infection.
COVIS was initiated by CDC in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Gulf Coast states (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) in 1988. Using the COVIS report form (available at http://www.cdc.gov/nationalsurveillance/PDFs/CDC5279_COVISvibriosis.pdf), participating health officials report clinical data, including information about underlying illness; detailed history of seafood consumption; detailed exposure to a body of water, drippings from raw or live seafood, or other contact with marine life in the 7 days before illness onset; and traceback information on implicated seafood. Before 2007, only cholera, which, by definition, is caused by infection with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 or O139 was nationally reportable; in January 2007, infection with other species from the family Vibrionaceae (vibriosis) also became nationally reportable. CDC serotypes all V. parahaemolyticus isolates received from state health departments; for V. cholerae, CDC tests for serogroups O1, O75, O139, and O141, and determines whether cholera toxin is produced. Although all Vibrio infections are nationally notifiable, many cases are likely not recognized because Vibrios are not easily identified on routine enteric media.
This report summarizes human Vibrio infections during 2009 reported by states to CDC. Results are presented in two categories: 1) toxigenic Vibrio cholerae infections (including both cholera, caused by toxigenic V. cholerae O1 or O139, and vibriosis, caused by all other toxigenic V. cholerae serogroups), and 2) all other Vibrio infections. . Additionally, results are presented by clinical specimen type. The Vibrio species may have been isolated from more than one specimen type in a single patient. It is important to note that isolation of Vibrio from an ill patient does not necessarily indicate that the Vibrio infection caused the illness. While many Vibrio species are well-recognized human pathogens, the status of some species, including V. damsela, V. furnissii, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis, as human enteric or wound pathogens is less clear.
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