Surveillance for Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis, and Blastomycosis — United States, 2019
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

All these words:

For very narrow results

This exact word or phrase:

When looking for a specific result

Any of these words:

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

None of these words:

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields



Publication Date Range:


Document Data


Document Type:






Clear All

Query Builder

Query box

Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page


Surveillance for Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis, and Blastomycosis — United States, 2019

Filetype[PDF-811.65 KB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      MMWR Surveill Summ
    • Description:

      Coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis are underdiagnosed fungal diseases that often mimic bacterial or viral pneumonia and can cause disseminated disease and death. These diseases are caused by inhalation of fungal spores that have distinct geographic niches in the environment (e.g., soil or dust), and distribution is highly susceptible to climate changes such as expanding arid regions for coccidioidomycosis, the northward expansion of histoplasmosis, and areas like New York reporting cases of blastomycosis previously thought to be nonendemic. The national incidence of coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis is poorly characterized.

      Reporting Period


      Description of System

      The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) tracks cases of coccidioidomycosis, a nationally notifiable condition reported to CDC by 26 states and the District of Columbia. Neither histoplasmosis nor blastomycosis is a nationally notifiable condition; however, histoplasmosis is voluntarily reported in 13 states and blastomycosis in five states. Health departments classify cases based on the definitions established by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.


      In 2019, a total of 20,061 confirmed coccidioidomycosis, 1,124 confirmed and probable histoplasmosis, and 240 confirmed and probable blastomycosis cases were reported to CDC. Arizona and California reported 97% of coccidioidomycosis cases, and Minnesota and Wisconsin reported 75% of blastomycosis cases. Illinois reported the greatest percentage (26%) of histoplasmosis cases. All three diseases were more common among males, and the proportion for blastomycosis (70%) was substantially higher than for histoplasmosis (56%) or coccidioidomycosis (52%). Coccidioidomycosis incidence was approximately four times higher for non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons (17.3 per 100,000 population) and almost three times higher for Hispanic or Latino persons (11.2) compared with non-Hispanic White (White) persons (4.1). Histoplasmosis incidence was similar across racial and ethnic categories (range: 0.9–1.3). Blastomycosis incidence was approximately six times as high among AI/AN persons (4.5) and approximately twice as high among non-Hispanic Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander persons (1.6) compared with White persons (0.7). More than one half of histoplasmosis (54%) and blastomycosis (65%) patients were hospitalized, and 5% of histoplasmosis and 9% of blastomycosis patients died. States in which coccidioidomycosis is not known to be endemic had more cases in spring (March, April, and May) than during other seasons, whereas the number of cases peaked slightly in autumn (September, October, and November) for histoplasmosis and in winter (December, January, and February) for blastomycosis.


      Coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis are diseases occurring in geographical niches within the United States. These diseases cause substantial illness, with approximately 20,000 coccidioidomycosis cases reported in 2019. Although substantially fewer histoplasmosis and blastomycosis cases were reported, surveillance was much more limited and underdiagnosis was likely, as evidenced by high hospitalization and death rates. This suggests that persons with milder symptoms might not seek medical evaluation and the symptoms self-resolve or the illnesses are misdiagnosed as other, more common respiratory diseases.

      Public Health Action

      Improved surveillance is necessary to better characterize coccidioidomycosis severity and to improve detection of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. These findings might guide improvements in testing practices that enable timely diagnosis and treatment of fungal diseases. Clinicians and health care professionals should consider coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia or other acute infections of the lower respiratory tract who live in or have traveled to areas where the causative fungi are known to be present in the environment. Culturally appropriate tailored educational messages might help improve diagnosis and treatment. Public health response to these three diseases is hindered because information gathered from states’ routine surveillance does not include data on populations at risk and sources of exposure. Broader surveillance that includes expansion to other states, and more detail about potential exposures and relevant host factors can describe epidemiologic trends, populations at risk, and disease prevention strategies.

    • Pubmed ID:
    • Pubmed Central ID:
    • Document Type:
    • Main Document Checksum:
    • File Type:

    You May Also Like

    Checkout today's featured content at