Assisted reproductive technology Surveillance — United States, 2018
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Assisted reproductive technology Surveillance — United States, 2018

Filetype[PDF-1.06 MB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      MMWR Surveill Summ
    • Description:
      Problem/Condition: Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to have multiple births because multiple embryos might be transferred. Multiple births can pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric Complications, preterm birth (<37 weeks), and low birthweight (<2,500 g). This report provides state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2018 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2018 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2017 and 2018) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2018.

      Period Covered


      Description of System: In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

      Results: In 2018, a total of 203,119 ART procedures (range: 196 in Alaska to 26,028 in California) were performed in 456 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 73,831 live-birth deliveries (range: 76 in Puerto Rico and Wyoming to 9,666 in California) and 81,478 infants born (range: 84 in Wyoming to 10,620 in California). Nationally, among women aged 15–44 years, the rate of ART procedures performed was 3,135 per 1 million women. ART use exceeded 1.5 times the national rate in seven states (Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island) and the District of Columbia. ART use rates exceeded the national rate in an additional seven states (California, Delaware, Hawaii, New Hampshire, Utah, Vermont, and Virginia).

      Interpretation: Although singleton infants accounted for the majority of ART-conceived infants, multiple births from ART varied substantially among states and nationally, contributing to >12% of all twins, triplets, and higher-order multiple infants born in the United States Because multiple births are associated with higher rates of prematurity than singleton births, the contribution of ART to poor birth outcomes continues to be noteworthy. Although SET rates increased among all age groups, variations in SET rates among states and territories remained, which might reflect variations in embryo-transfer practices among fertility clinics and might in part account for variations in multiple birth rates among states and territories.

      Public Health Action: Reducing the number of embryos transferred and increasing use of SET, when clinically appropriate, can help reduce multiple births and related adverse health consequences for both mothers and infants. Whereas risks to mothers from multiple-birth pregnancy include higher rates of caesarean delivery, gestational hypertension, and gestational diabetes, infants from multiple births are at increased risk for numerous adverse sequelae such as preterm birth, birth defects, and developmental disabilities. Long-term follow-up of ART infants through integration of existing maternal and infant health Surveillance systems and registries with data available from NASS might be useful for monitoring adverse outcomes on a population basis.

      Suggested citation for this article: Sunderam S, Kissin DM, Zhang Y, et al. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance — United States, 2018. MMWR Surveill Summ 2022;71(No. SS-4):1–19.

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