Three-dimensional shield mechanics
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      "This Bureau of Mines report describes research on developing technology to utilize shields as roof load monitors. Three- dimensional equations of static equilibrium are presented for a generic two-legged longwall shield. The equations are presented in the most general form, assuming a force and moment vector at each reaction by rigid-body analysis of the shield mechanics. The resulting system of equations was found to be indeterminate to a very high degree. A three-dimensional solution to measurement of the resultant reaction on the canopy by the strata activity and shield response required the elimination of several forces or moments that were thought to be nonparticipating or to not significantly affect overall shield mechanics. Required measurements for solution of the equilibrium equations were leg, canopy capsule, and lemniscate link forces. Two-dimensional analysis, which considered forces acting only in the roof-to-floor and face-to-waste plane, was also provided by reduction of the three- dimensional equations." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSHTIC no. 10005719
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