Strata interactions in multiple-seam mining--two case studies in Pennsylvania
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Strata interactions in multiple-seam mining--two case studies in Pennsylvania

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      "The Bureau of Mines, in an effort to improve planning and development in coal mining, is investigating strata interactions associated with mining of multiple coalbeds. Two common interactions that occur between adjacent coalbeds are subsidence and pillar load transfer. The study described involves underground observations and measurements conducted at two Pennsylvania mines, each affected by one of these interactions. At the mine affected by subsidence, measurements show that undermining had little effect on upper mine pillar stability, but had a more severe effect on the development and maintenance of entries. Roof-to-floor measurements recorded over four times more convergence in entries developed over gob as compared with entries developed over support pillars in the lower mine. At the mine affected by pillar load transfer, initial in situ measurements have shown the existence of a pressure arch in the lower workings. Prior research has shown that arch interaction between two adjacent openings can create stress concentrations in the innerburden. Underground measurements and results obtained from both mine sites correlate with theoretical and photoelastic multiple- seam models. Further study of multiple-seam interaction mechanisms will lead to improved mine planning, increased resource conservation, and a safer working environment." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSHTIC no. 10005459
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